Migraine – Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Migraine is defined as intense headache (headache), lasting from 4 to 72 hours, and recurrent. A person who has migraines can not normally perform his routine daily activities. Although migraines are unpleasant and interfere with the normal course of life, they do not cause long-term injuries. Migraines can be considered a condition that should be treated as such. Specialist medical advice is important because the doctor may recommend different medicines that can alleviate intense headache associated with migraines.

Migraine is defined as intense headache (headache), lasting from 4 to 72 hours, and recurrent. A person who has migraines can not normally perform his routine daily activities. Although migraines are unpleasant and interfere with the normal course of life, they do not cause long-term injuries. Migraines can be considered a condition that should be treated as such

Causes

– Family aggregation (genetic transmission) was highlighted in the case of migraines. However, it is not known exactly why some people are more prone to migraine than others

– dilation or narrowing of the cerebral vessels (aneurysms or vascular stenoses) which can cause intense headache secondary to various chemical changes at this level (these chemical changes may cause inflammation, edema and pain)

Symptoms

The symptoms of migraine can vary from case to case, often preceded by certain predisposing signs (aura). The characteristic aura symptoms typically occur about 30 minutes before the migraine attack itself and is characterized by headaches that increase in intensity and visual disturbances (the patient sees black spots or perceives intense light flashes). Some people report a numbness or numbness in the arms, hands or face during this aura. However, most people do not report the presence of aura before the migraine episode.

 

The most common symptoms of migraine include:

  • – pulsatile headache on one side of the skull (hemicrania)
  • – Moderate-severe headache
  • – Increasing headache with day-to-day physical activities
  • – nausea, vomiting
  • – Increased sensitivity to light (photophobia) or to sound stimuli, sometimes even to certain odors.

There are several types of migraines, each with its particular features. For example, some women have migraines that appear before menstruation (premenstrual). It is quite difficult to differentiate migraines from other types of headache. Headache of acute sinusitis is similar to migraine headache. Migraines differ from other types of headache in that they appear on one side of the head (hemicrania), its right and left locations, but may vary from one episode to another. Migraines are often accompanied by photophobia and increased sensitivity to noise. Migraines can also occur in the context of other conditions, such as asthma or depression. Other more serious conditions, such as tumors or brain infections, may exhibit migraine-like symptoms. Headache due to other serious health causes is relatively rare.

Evolution

Symptoms before migraine (prodromal)

With a day or two before the migraine, the person in question can tell you different symptoms such as marked fatigue, sleepiness, selective appetite for certain foods (eg chocolate), irritability, or psychomotor agitation.

Aura

A percentage of 30% of migraine sufferers, before the migraine episode, have some predatory signs, medically named aura. The characteristic aura symptoms develop in 5-20 minutes and are characterized by the appearance of visual disturbances of the type, intense light flashes, dark, dark spots, image distortion. Also, sensory disorders (numbness, tingling) may occur in the hands, arms or face.

In rare cases, the patient can not describe the words in the words, sometimes a sudden weakness installed on one side of the body. If migraine develops new symptoms that have not been reported by the patient, it is important that he urgently recourse to specialist health care to eliminate other (serious) conditions that may have similar symptoms (ischemic stroke transient or ischemic or haemorrhagic vascular accident).

Migraine attack

Usually 30 minutes after the aura is installed, the migraine itself occurs. Without treatment, it can take between 4 and 72 hours. Headache (headache) occurs on the side of the head (hemicrania), often behind the orbit, although pain can change its location and pass the other side of the head or generalize on both sides. Pain may vary in intensity from moderate to severe, sometimes being atrocious, invalid.

 

Other symptoms that can accompany headache are:

  • – Increased sensitivity to light (photophobia) or other stimuli (auditory or olfactory)
  • – nausea, vomiting
  • – Increasing symptoms with normal daily activities.

 

Rarely, speech problems (dysarthria), tingling of the face, hands, shoulders, or weakness installed on one side of the body (hemiplegia) have been reported.

Symptoms following migraine attack (postdromal)

 

With the decrease and disappearance of migraine secondary symptoms, certain symptoms may occur, such as muscle pains or cramps, fatigue (tiredness), or sometimes short periods of revelation. These symptoms may take up to 24 hours after the end of the migraine episode.

Risk Factors

Individuals with the following characteristics are more prone to develop migraines:

– family history of migraines;

– female sex. Women have a 3 times higher risk of migraine than men;

– adolescents and young adults, migraines most frequently occurring in these age groups;

– conditions such as depression, depressive anxiety syndrome, asthma, or epilepsy.

Specialized consultation

It is recommended that you follow the following guidelines for people who are suspected of having migraine.

Calling Emergency Service (rescue or emergency units of hospitals) if it occurs:

  • – intense, atrophic headache, often paroxysmal (suddenly), different from other previous episodes or that seems inconsistent;
  • – Numbness, paralysis or weakness in the face, limbs, especially on a part of the body (hemiplegia);
  • – dizziness suddenly installed, unable to walk normally or maintain orthostatism (vertical position of the body);
  • – sudden visual disturbances;
  • – speech disorder (dysarthria) or mental confusion (obtrusiveness);
  • – disturbances in walking or maintaining balance and orthostatism.

Consult your healthcare professional or call the hospital emergency department if it occurs:

  • – fever and headache (stiff neck muscles);
  • – nausea and vomiting with the inability to ingest fluids;
  • – headaches that do not diminish within 24 hours.

Careful follow-up of symptoms and making a specialist medical checkup if it occurs:

  • – headache that does not diminish 1-2 days after onset or wakes the patient at night (headache nocturnal);
  • – headache is worsening or recurring (repetitive) more frequently, at short intervals of time;
  • – the appearance of new symptoms;
  • – some issues related to drug treatment are suspected;
  • – recurrent headache at the age of 50 years;
  • – headache after physical activity (even after sexual activity), after coughing or sneezing;
  • – Symptoms are strong enough to disrupt the daily physical activity (eg absence from school or work).

A vigilant expectation

The vigilante expectancy period is the time interval during which the physician observes the evolution of the symptoms or condition without any treatment. This approach is recommended for newly diagnosed patients who use a range of drugs to reduce the intensity and frequency of these attacks.

Specialists recommended

Specialists who can diagnose and treat migraine are the following:

  • – the family doctor
  • – the general practitioner
  • – the internist
  • – neurologist.

 

It is advisable to consult a specialist in the treatment of migraines, especially if headache does not diminish and does not disappear when using the treatment. In the case of migrant children, it is very important to resort to a pediatrician experienced in treating such ailments (the most commonly pediatric neurologist). It is also important to know that medical studies for the use of antimigraine drugs in the baby are quite limited.

If there is suspicion that migraine is related to a mental illness such as depression or anxiety, a psychiatric or psychological specialist consultation is recommended to recommend a correct treatment.

Treatment – Generalities

There is no curative treatment for migraines, but different treatments can be performed to reduce the intensity and frequency of migraine attacks. There are several types of drugs that are used to prevent and treat migraine recurrences. There is evidence that chronic administration of aspirin and an antiemetic (which reduces nausea and vomiting), for example metoclopramide (Reglan), can reduce the symptoms associated with migraine.

Another way to reduce the number of migraine episodes is to avoid the risk factors that can trigger migraine episodes, such as red wine consumption or excessive or insufficient sleep.

Initial treatment

To reduce the symptoms associated with migraines, you can initially use common medications that can be purchased by the patient without the need for a medical prescription such as acetaminophen or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Naproxen). Most specialists recommend using NSAIDs initially before using other drugs that may have more side effects.

Initial treatment of migraine depends on the severity of the symptoms and on the frequency of migraine episodes. Medicines that reduce symptoms and medications that prevent recurrent attacks are used.

The most commonly used medicines for the treatment of migraine are:

  • – Serotonin receptor agonists (triptans) are drugs that are used when trying to reduce headache quickly
  • – ergotamine derivatives, such as Cafergot, are also used to treat migraines but are not as effective as triptans
  • – Midrin is a drug combination of isometheptene acetaminophen and dichlorphenazone

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like Aspirin can be purchased without a prescription.

 

The most commonly used drugs in preventing migraine episodes are:

  • – beta-blockers that cause vascular muscular relaxation
  • – calcium channel blockers that reduce vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels)
  • – antidepressant medications such as amitriptyline or tricyclic antidepressants are also useful in preventing migraine episodes
  • – Anticonvulsants such as topiramate have recently been approved by pharmaceutical associations as antimigraine medication.

 

Some medical studies have shown that ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers reduce the frequency of migraine episodes. However, more medical studies are needed to prove this.

Anti-emetic medication (which reduces nausea and vomiting), such as the Reglan or Regent, is often prescribed along with other medicines that can effectively control these symptoms.

 

Some medicines based on triptans are used by women who experience premenstrual migraines. A recent medical study has shown that women with premenstrual migraine who administer frovatriptan (Frova) for 6 days (2 days before menstruation). Frovatriptan is a medicine used to treat intense, persistent headache. Another medical study has shown that naratriptan can prevent migraine attacks that occur before menstruation.

 

Complementary therapy may be associated with initial treatment to reduce the number and intensity of migraine attacks. It is important for the treating physician to be informed about the use of such therapies.

Acupuncture is a method that involves the use of fine needles that are inserted into the skin and which have the role of concentrating and directing the flow of energy to the vital organs. This can relax the muscles and also reduce headache. Biofeedback is a relaxing method in which the patient learns to control body functions and thus muscle tension.

Relaxation techniques reduce stress and tension. Chrysanthemum parthenium is a plant that can prevent migraine attacks. However, more studies are needed to prove its effectiveness. Petasites officinalis is also used in the treatment and prevention of migraine attacks.

Treatment if the disease worsens

If the symptoms of migraine persist in spite of treatment, it is advisable to re-evaluate and establish a new treatment. If multiple treatment regimens have been tried and symptoms remain persistent, some complementary investigations, such as MRI or CT, are required to remove other possible conditions that may cause similar symptoms.

It is possible that in some cases the diagnosis of migraine is wrong and is thus confused with other causes of headache, which require another treatment.

To remember!

Migraine episodes may be repeated even under the appropriate medical treatment. The purpose of the treatment is to reduce the number of migraine episodes and also to reduce their intensity by using effective drugs that have few side effects. In the case of medium-intensity migraines, the less powerful drugs that can be released without a medical prescription are used. If the symptoms persist or intensify, the treatment strategy will shift and stronger drugs will be used.

Finding the right treatment for each person requires time and patience. Excessive use of antithrombotic drugs or controlling headache may cause relapses. These rebound migraines are different from the initial ones and occur with the disappearance of the effect of the medication used, and a new administration is needed. Over time, headache will reappear whenever the person stops treatment. Antimigraine medication should always be recommended by your doctor. If recurrences of migraine episodes are associated with the presence of depression or anxiety, it is important that the attending physician is informed of this.

Prophylaxis

Prophylaxis of recurrences can be accomplished effectively by avoiding certain trigger factors that can trigger attacks, among which:

  • – consumption of chocolate, monosodium glutamate, red wine and caffeine
  • – Excessive or inadequate sleep
  • – irregular meals, lack of meals
  • – meteorological and barometric changes (decrease or increase of atmospheric pressure)
  • – Stress and intense emotions
  • – Strong smells or cigarette smoke
  • – strong light, including luminous reflection.

Outpatient treatment

There are several ways to control the symptoms associated with recurrent migraines. Among the methods that can be done at home, we mention the following:

  • – stress avoidance and adequate psychological control
  • – practicing relaxation techniques that reduce stress and stress
  • – administration of some drugs used predominantly in the prevention of migraine episodes
  • – identifying the responsible elements in triggering migraine and avoiding them as much as possible
  • – Call for specialist medical advice if some mental illnesses such as depression or anxiety (depressive anxiety syndrome) are suspected.

 

Child headache is often linked to performing certain daytime activities (exams, exercise, stress), but can also be associated with lack of sleep. Parents and pediatricians should closely monitor the development of migraines in children and also monitor closely the drug treatment.

Medication options

The most commonly used medicines for the treatment of migraine are:

  • – Serotonin receptor agonists (triptans) are drugs that are used when trying to reduce headache quickly
  • – ergotamine derivatives such as Cafergot are also used to treat migraines but are not as effective as triptans
  • – Midrin is a drug combination of isometheptene acetaminophen and dichlorphenazone

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like Aspirin can be purchased without a prescription.

 

The most commonly used drugs in preventing migraine episodes are:

  • – beta-blockers that cause vascular muscular relaxation
  • – calcium channel blockers that reduce vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels)
  • – antidepressant medications such as amitriptyline or tricyclic antidepressants are also useful in preventing migraine episodes
  • – Anticonvulsants like topiramate have recently been approved by pharmaceutical associations as antimigraine medication.

Some medical studies have shown that angiotensin converting enzyme (IEC) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers reduce the frequency of migraine episodes. However, more medical studies are needed to prove this. Anti-emetic medication (which reduces nausea and vomiting) such as Compact or Reglan, is often prescribed along with other medicines that can effectively control these symptoms.

Surgical treatment

There is no surgical treatment that can cure or alleviate the symptoms of migraine.

Other treatments

Complementary therapy may be associated with initial treatment to reduce the number and intensity of migraine attacks. It is important for the treating physician to be informed about the use of such therapies.

Acupuncture is a method that involves the use of fine needles that are inserted into the skin and which have the role of concentrating and directing the flow of energy to the vital organs. This can relax the muscles and also reduce headache.

Biofeedback is a relaxing method in which the patient learns to control body functions and stress and muscle tension. Relaxation techniques reduce stress and tension.

Chrysanthemum parthenium is a plant that can prevent migraine attacks. However, more studies are needed to prove its effectiveness.

Petasites officinalis is also used in the treatment and prevention of migraine attacks.

 

Check Also

Hair Detox Recipes

5 Hair Detox Recipes

Share this...PinterestFacebookGoogle+TwitterLinkedin Do you want a rich, volume-rich, healthy hair? Hairstylist tells you the steps …

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *